The forced walking test: A novel test for pinpointing the anesthetic-induced transition in consciousness in mouse
- The forced walking test: A novel test for pinpointing the anesthetic-induced transition in consciousness in mouse
- 황은진; 김승환; 신희섭; 최지현
- 의식; 무의식; 상전이; 행동실험; EEG; anesthesia; consciousness; phase transition; behavioral assessment; forced walking condition
- Issue Date
- Journal of neuroscience methods
- VOL 188, NO 1, 14-23
- In consciousness or anesthesia studies, pinpointing the precise moment of consciousness or
anesthetic transition has been challenging because of the variable lag time between a treatment and its
induced response. Here, we describe a novel behavioral method, a forced walking test, which pinpoints
the moment of the anesthetic-induced loss of motion (LOM) without handling the animals manually.
The mouse is forced to walk on a treadmill, and an anesthetic drug is administered into the peritoneum
via a previously secured injection route. The physical activity and the angle of head posture are tracked
using a motion sensor preinstalled on the animal's head. The moments of LOM and recovery of motion
(ROM) are identified from the physical activity parameters obtained by the sensor. Comparison of our
method with the conventional loss-of-righting-reflex assay showed that the time point of LOM was not
significantly different between the two methods when examined with two different types of anesthetic
agents, propofol and ketamine/xylazine cocktail. In addition, the electrophysiological signals
simultaneously acquired in the cortex and the thalamus of the mouse during the forced walking test
showed that the brain rhythms induced by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia were generated and
terminated in a time-locked manner with respect to LOM and ROM, respectively. In conclusion, the
forced walking test allows an objective and precise detection of anesthetic-induced LOM, as well as
ROM during awakening from anesthesia, in test animals.
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