Synergistic hepatotoxicity of N,N-dimethylformamide with carbon tetrachloride in association with endoplasmic reticulum stress

Title
Synergistic hepatotoxicity of N,N-dimethylformamide with carbon tetrachloride in association with endoplasmic reticulum stress
Authors
김태현김영우신상미김춘원유일재김상건
Keywords
DMF; Carbon tetrachloride; ER stress; Hepatocyte death; Hepatotoxicity
Issue Date
2010-03
Publisher
Chemico-biological interactions
Citation
VOL 184, NO 3, 492-501
Abstract
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is an organic solvent extensively used in industries such as synthetic leather, fibers and films, and induces liver toxicity and carcinogenesis. Despite a series of experimental and clinical reports on DMF-induced liver failure, the mechanism of toxicity is yet unclear. This study investigated whether DMF in combination with a low dose of hepatotoxicant enhances hepatotoxicity, and if so, on what mechanistic basis. Treatment of rats with either DMF (50–500 mg/kg/day, for 3 days) or a single low dose of CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg) alone caused small increases in plasma transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase activities. However, combinatorial treatment of DMF with CCl4 markedly increased blood biochemical changes. Histopathology confirmed the synergism in hepatotoxicity. Moreover, DMF+ CCl4 caused PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation, but decreased the level of Bcl-xL, all of which confirmed apoptosis of hepatocytes. Consistently, DMF+ CCl4 treatment markedly increased lipid peroxidation. By contrast, treatment of DMF in combination with lipopolysaccharide, acetaminophen or d-galactosamine caused no enhanced hepatotoxicity. Given the link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction and cell death, ER stress response was monitored after DMF and/or CCl4 treatment. Whereas either DMF or CCl4 treatment alone marginally changed the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and phosphorylated PKR-like ER-localized eIF2α kinase, concomitant treatment with DMF and CCl4 synergistically induced them with increases in glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein mRNAs. Our results demonstrate that DMF treatment in combination with CCl4 synergistically increases hepatocyte death, which may be associated with the induction of severe ER stress.
URI
http://pubs.kist.re.kr/handle/201004/38216
ISSN
0009-2797
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KIST Publication > Article
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