Intrinsic ferromagnetism and magnetic anisotropy in Gd-doped ZnO thin films synthesized by pulsed spray pyrolysis method
- Intrinsic ferromagnetism and magnetic anisotropy in Gd-doped ZnO thin films synthesized by pulsed spray pyrolysis method
- M. Subramanian; P. Thakur; M. Tanemura; T. Hihara; V. Ganesan; T. Soga; 채근화; R. Jayavel; T. Jimbo
- Gd-doped ZnO thin films; versatile pulsed spray pyrolysis; Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure; Rutherford backscattering (RBS)
- Issue Date
- Journal of applied physics
- VOL 108, NO 5, 053904-1-053904-7
- This paper reports an in-depth study on nanocrystalline Gd-doped ZnO thin films synthesized using
versatile pulsed spray pyrolysis method and exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism. The detailed
structural and microstructural studies confirm that the doped Gd ions occupy Zn sites and the peak
shift can be elucidated by charge neutrality. Optical investigation shows that the Gd doping in ZnO
lattice leads to a decrease in the near band edge position due to the introduction of new unoccupied
states by Gd 4f electrons. The electronic structure of the Zn1−xGdxO at the O K edge shows the
evolution of pre-edge spectral features similar to cuprates and manganites, and also confirms the
strong hybridization of O 2p–Gd 4f /5d states. Furthermore, the Gd M5 edge provides evidence
that Gd ions are in the trivalent state. Hysteresis measurements demonstrate that the Gd-doped ZnO
films are magnetically anisotropic and exhibit intrinsic ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.
Higher magnetization in 3 kOe values is observed for a field applied perpendicular to the sample
surface compared to the in-plane direction.
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