Doubly-clamped piezoelectric resonator study for protein detection system

Doubly-clamped piezoelectric resonator study for protein detection system
PZT; bridge resonator; Protein detection; MEMS; PSA
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In this paper, theoretical calculation, fabrication, and immunoassay of doubly clamped(bridge shape) piezoelectric resonators based on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate(PZT) were investigated for the application of pico level protein detection system, specifically prostate specific antigen(PSA). Theoretical calculations of the multi-layered bridge resonators were investigated using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in order to understand the it's motional characteristics[1-2]. Resonance frequency, bending modulus and effective mass were calculated with various resonator length, width and material thickness, respectively. Also, using the harmonic oscillation model, we analyze the relationship between resonance frequency and additional mass loading in order to understand the resonance frequency shift induced by the molecular absorption to the resonator surface[3]. The resonators were fabricated using MEMS(micro electro-mechanical system) process incorporating reactive ion etching, sputtering and Si bulk etching techniques. Microfabricated resonators were composed of a Ta/Pt/PZT/Pt layers on a SiNX supporting layer for the simultaneous self-actuating and sensing. Measured values of their resonance frequency and Q-factor are about 406±3kHz(for samples of 50㎛ × 250㎛) and 177±2kHz(for samples of 100㎛ × 500㎛), and over 1330, respectively. For the immunoassay, fabricated resonators were functionalized by formation of calixcrown self-assembled monolayers(SAMs) that can immobilize the antibody(anti-PSA) on the gold surface of resonators. These functionalized resonators can detect the minute amounts of antigen(PSA) based on resonance frequency shift which is occurred by additional mass loading result from antibody-antigen specific binding. Experimental results show that magnitude of resonant frequency shift increases with a decrease of bridge dimension. This means that decreasing of bridge dimension result in increa
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