Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma
- Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma
- 최만호; 문주연; 조성희; 정봉철; 이은직
- steroids; thyroid cancer; menopuase; gender difference; GC-MS
- Issue Date
- BMC cancer
- VOL 11, 342-1-342-14
- Background: To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men
with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
Methods: Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to
measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr) and post-menopausal
female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr), and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr) patients with PTC. After comparing
the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21
± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr), the levels of
steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and
Results: Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the
levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher
in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men,
while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC
patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal
women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-
methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between preand
post-menopausal PTC women (P < 0.001). In particular, the metabolic ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroxy-
17β-estradiol, which could reveal the enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, showed gender
differences in PTC patients (P < 1 × 10-7).
Conclusions: These results are expected be helpful for better
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