Protective effects of Crepidiastrum denticulatum on oxidative stress-induced retinal degeneration

Protective effects of Crepidiastrum denticulatum on oxidative stress-induced retinal degeneration
Crepidiastrum denticulatum; edible wild vegetable; retinal ganglion cells; oxidative stress; glaucoma
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The European Association for Vision and Eye Research
This study was to determine whether edible wild vegetable, Crepidiastrum denticulatum, is effective at blunting the negative influence of 1-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO, 0.5 mM) plus glutamate (10 mM) for 24 hours induced transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) death. The ethanol extract of C. denticulatum (EECD) significantly attenuated the negative insult of BSO plus glutamate to RGC-5 cells. Treatment of the RGC-5 cells with EECD reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by various radical species such as H2O2, OH• or O2•-. This ROS inhibitory potency was also confirmed by microscopic analysis using dihydroethidium (DHE). There was an increase in the apoptotic proteins of cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3, and a decrease of Bcl-2 in the cultures exposed to BSO plus glutamate. The up and down regulation of apoptotic proteins were significantly blunted by EECD. The negative influence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on the retinas of rats affected the thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in positive ganglion cells. EECD protected the thinning of the IPL and increased TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be major active components responsible for the activity of EECD and could serve as marker compounds for standardization. These data suggest that EECD could be promoted as a potential anti-oxidative functional food candidate, particularly for neuroprotection for glaucoma against oxidative stress.
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