Realizing the Potential of ZnO with alternative non-metallic co-dopants as electrode for small molecule optoelectronic devices
- Realizing the Potential of ZnO with alternative non-metallic co-dopants as electrode for small molecule optoelectronic devices
- 김용현; 김진수; 김원목; 성태연; Jonghee Lee; Lars Muller-Meskamp; Karl Leo
- Transparent conducting oxide; ZnO; OLED; OPV; non-metallic co-dopants
- Issue Date
- Advanced functional materials
- VOL 23, NO 29, 3645-3652
- High performance indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic solar
cells and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are demonstrated using
optimized ZnO electrodes with alternative non-metallic co-dopants. The
co-doping of hydrogen and fl uorine reduces the metal content of ZnO thin
fi lms, resulting in a low absorption coeffi cient, a high transmittance, and
a low refractive index as well as the high conductivity, which are needed
for the application in organic solar cells and OLEDs. While the established
metal-doped ZnO fi lms have good electrical and optical properties, their
application in organic devices is not as effi cient as other alternative electrode
approaches. The optimized ZnO electrodes presented here are employed in
organic solar cells as well as OLEDs and allow not only the replacement of
ITO, but also signifi cantly improve the effi ciency compared to lab-standard
ITO. The enhanced performance is attributed to outstanding optical properties
and spontaneously nanostructured surfaces of the ZnO fi lms with
non-metallic co-dopants and their straightforward integration with molecular
doping technology, which avoids several common drawbacks of ZnO electrodes.
The observations show that optimized ZnO fi lms with non-metallic
co-dopants are a promising and competitive electrode for low-cost and high
performance organic solar cells and OLEDs.
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