A New Dual-Frequency Stimulation Method to Increase the Number of Visual Stimuli for Multi-Class SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
- A New Dual-Frequency Stimulation Method to Increase the Number of Visual Stimuli for Multi-Class SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
- 황한정; 김동환; 한창희; 임창환
- Brain-computer interface (BCI); Dual-frequency stimulation; Steady-state visual evoked potential
(SSVEP); Pattern reversal visual stimuli; Electroencephalography (EEG)
- Issue Date
- Brain research
- VOL 1515, 66-77
- In the present study, we introduce a new dual-frequency stimulation method that can produce more visual stimuli with limited number of stimulation frequencies for use in multiclass steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain–computer interface (BCI) systems. Methods for increasing the number of visual stimuli are necessary, particularly for the implementation of multi-class SSVEP-based BCI, as available stimulation frequencies are generally limited when visual stimuli are presented through a computer monitor. The new stimulation was based on a conventional black–white checkerboard pattern; however, unlike the conventional approach, ten visual stimuli eliciting distinct SSVEP responses at different frequencies could be generated by combining four different stimulation frequencies. Through the offline experiments conducted with eleven participants, we confirmed that all ten visual stimuli could evoke distinct and discriminable single SSVEP peaks, of which the signal-to-noise ratios were high enough to be used for practical SSVEP-based BCI systems. In order to demonstrate the possibility of the practical use of the proposed method, a mental keypad system was implemented and online experiments were conducted with additional ten participants. We achieved an average information transfer rate of 33.26 bits/min and an average accuracy of 87.23%, and all ten participants succeeded in calling their mobile phones using our online BCI system.
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