Protective effects of chlorogenic acid derivatives and coffee extract on hypoxia-induced retinal degeneration

Protective effects of chlorogenic acid derivatives and coffee extract on hypoxia-induced retinal degeneration
장호림김경아Jo Hyung안홍열이은하이기원정상훈Lee Chang Y.
Chlorogenic acid; Coffee; hypoxia; retinal degeneration
Issue Date
Journal of food science : an official publication of the Institute of Food Technologists
Retinal hypoxia, a pathological condition that is deprived of adequate oxygen supply in retinal vascular diseases with impaired blood supply, leads to severe consequences for tissue function and cell viability and a potential risk factor of sight-threatening disorders. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its derivatives have been known to possess various bioactivities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer. Moreover, it has also been reported that CGA derivatives inhibit neuronal damage against ischemia-induced stress. However, there has been no report regarding the protective effect of CGA derivatives on hypoxia-induced retinal degeneration, therefore, the aim of this research was to determine neuroprotective effect of two CGA derivatives on transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Among CGA derivatives, 3-caffeolyquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-dicaffeolyquinic acid (DCQA) have been known as major compound for numerous biological activities. 3-CQA is main constituents in coffee, which contains 5-12 % in raw coffee. 3,5-DCQA is also important CGA derivatives, and is widely distributed in wild vegetables such as Gymnaster koraiensis N. and Liqularia fischeri grown in Korea. These two compounds were screened for anti-apoptosis activities with cell viability, microscopic, western blot, and fluorescence activated cell sorting assay. Roasted and ground Colombian coffee extracts with ddH2O were also tested for their protective effects. To mimic physiological hypoxic stress, RGC-5 cultures were transferred into a closed hypoxic chamber. RGC-5 cells were treated with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) for 24 h to induce nitric oxide. Under hypoxia condition, 100 μM SNAP caused a significant reduction in cell viability. However, pretreatment of RGC-5 cells with 3-CQA and 3,5-DCQA at 25, 50, and 100 μM significantly attenuated cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of 3-CQA and 3,5-DCQA reduc
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