Intercalation behavior of a manganese dioxide with zion ion

Intercalation behavior of a manganese dioxide with zion ion
beyond lithium ion; zinc ion; manganese dioxide
Issue Date
Beyond Lithium Ion VI
Recently, there have been growing interests in developing new energy storage systems based on abundant multivalent cations such as Mg2+, Al3+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ as a charge transport carrier since Mg-ion cells consisting of Mo6O8 Chevrel phase cathode and high energy density Mg metal anode was reported to offer an theoretical energy density (135 Wh kg-1) comparable to that of Ni/MH battery system without a noticeable degradation for thousands of cycles. Ideally, these systems are suitable for a medium- or large-scale energy storage device for such as a loadleveling of intermittent renewable energy sources and an emergency backup power of green buildings since these are considered to be potentially manufactured much more economically with a competitive energy density than Li-ion batteries. In practice, however, the development of these systems is often interrupted by the lack of reversible electrode materials with reversible intercalation mechanism of charge carriers and the slow progress in choosing a proper electrolyte system. Most of all, multiple ionic charges which each cation carries undoubtedly increase the electrostatic interaction of the cation with its surroundings, leading to poor intercalation kinetics. The common approach for mitigating these interactions so far includes nano-sizing of the electrode materials which shortens the diffusion path of the multi-charged cations, partial shielding of cationic charge by adding small amount of polar molecules and use of a material with a large tunnel size or slap distance minimizing the steric hindrance.
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