Extensive spatio-temporal analysis of surface ozone over South Korea for 1999-2010 considering meteorological factors

Extensive spatio-temporal analysis of surface ozone over South Korea for 1999-2010 considering meteorological factors
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European Geosciences Union
Spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone are investigated using the KZ-filter considering meteorological factors based on measurement data at 124 air quality monitoring sites and 72 weather stations over South Korea for the time period of 1999-2010.We use hourly data of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), temperature (℃), dew-point temperature (℃), sea-level pressure (hPa), wind speed (m/s) and direction (16 cardinal directions), relative humidity (%), and solar insolation (W/m2). Over the Korean peninsula, surface O3 levels at the coastal cities are generally high due to the dynamic effects of the sea breeze and short-lived chlorine species from the sea salt, while those at the Seoul metropolitan area and other inland cities are low due to the NOx titration by anthropogenic emissions. The concentrations of surface O3 have generally increased for the analyzed period with the nationwide average linear trend of +0.26 ppbv/yr (+1.15 %/yr). We also examine the meteorological influences on the surface O3 levels over South Korea using a combined analysis of KZ-filter and multiple linear regressions between surface O3 and meteorological variables. Time-series of surface O3 are decomposed into the short-term, seasonal, and long-term components by the KZ-filter and regressed on meteorological variables. Through probability distribution analysis of the decomposed O3 time-series classified by wind direction, the O3 short-term variation at monitoring sites shows transport effects from the source regions. Impacts of surface temperature on the surface O3 levels are found to be significantly high in the highly populated metropolitan area and inland cities. It implies that those regions will be experiencing more frequent high-ozone events in the future climate conditions with the increase of global temperature. Especially in Seoul, the most populated area in South Korea, the probability of high O3 exceeding air
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