Anticarcinogenic Effects of Products of Heat-Processed Ginsenoside Re, a Major Constituent of Ginseng Berry, on Human Gastric Cancer Cells
- Anticarcinogenic Effects of Products of Heat-Processed Ginsenoside Re, a Major Constituent of Ginseng Berry, on Human Gastric Cancer Cells
- 장혁재; 한임호; 김영주; Noriko Yamabe; 이다혜; Gwi Seo Hwang; 오미영; 최경철; 김수남; 함정엽; 엄대운; 강기성
- ginsenoside Re; heat-processing; gastric cancer; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis
- Issue Date
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
- VOL 62, NO 13, 2830-2836
- Ginsenoside Re is a triol type triterpene glycoside and is abundantly present in ginseng berry. In the present study, we verified that ginsenoside Re can be transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely, Rg2, Rg6, and F4, by heat-processing. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re inhibited phosphorylation of CDK2 at Thr160 by upregulation of p21 level, resulting in S phase arrest. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re also activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, alteration of mitochondrial factors such as Bcl-2 and Bax was also observed. Moreover, pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk abrogated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activations by the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re. We further confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re in AGS cells are mainly mediated via generation of less-polar ginsenosides Rg6 and F4.
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