Physicochemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from a coal-fired power plant, automobiles, ship engines and charcoal kilns
- Physicochemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from a coal-fired power plant, automobiles, ship engines and charcoal kilns
- 김화진; 김진영; 김종수; 진현철
- Brown carbon; Carbonaceous particle; Combustion; HRTEM; Carbon morphology
- Issue Date
- VOL 161, 120-128
- The physicochemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plants, charcoal kilns, automobiles, and ship engines were the major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass, and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physicochemical analysis. Light-absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere.
Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure, and composition. From coal-fired power plants, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that complete combustion released carbonaceous species at high temperatures (1200-1300 degrees C). Both automobile and ship exhaust from diesel combustion show the typical features of soot: concentric circles comprising closely packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO)-combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing a different morphology of particles than soot; for example, spherically shaped char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Regarding soot aggregates, particles from HFO combustion have different chemical compositions; carbon dominates but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na (1%), and Mg (1%) are also present, which were not found in particles from automobile emission. This indicates that fuel properties and combustion conditions are important in determining the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass combustion, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystalline structure were observed, and are generally formed by the condensation of low-volatile species a
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