Remarkable conversion between n- and p-type reduced graphene oxide on varying the thermal annealing temperature
- Remarkable conversion between n- and p-type reduced graphene oxide on varying the thermal annealing temperature
- 뉴옌 카 투; 최재유; 박종래; 김희숙
- Issue Date
- Chemistry of materials
- VOL 27, NO 21, 7362-7369
- To allow for the use of graphene in various nanoelectronic applications, the methods for the large-scale production of graphene with controllable electrical properties need to be developed. Here, we report the results of a fundamental study on the remarkable conversion between n- and p-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with changes in the thermal annealing temperature. It was found that the charge carriers in rGO for temperatures of 300–450 °C and 800–1000 °C are electrons (n-type), whereas for temperatures of 450–800 °C, they are holes (p-type). This is because the individual oxygen functional groups present on rGO are determined by the annealing temperature. We found that the predominance of electron-withdrawing groups (i.e., carboxyl, carbonyl, and sp3-bonded hydroxyl, ether, and epoxide groups) resulted in p-type rGO, although that of electron-donating groups (sp2-bonded hydroxyl, ether and epoxide groups) lead to n-type rGO. In addition, as a proof of concept, a flexible thermoelectric device consisting of GO-700 and GO-1000 as p-type and n-type components, respectively, was fabricated. This device, which contained eight pairs of the two components, exhibited an output voltage of 4.1 mV and an output power of 41 nW for ΔT = 80 K. These results demonstrate that the carrier characteristics of rGO can be altered significantly by changing the functional groups present on it, thus allowing it to be used in various applications including flexible thermoelectrics.
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