Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer
- Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer
- 배귀남; 김진영; 이승복; 김화진; Qi Zhang
- Issue Date
- Atmospheric chemistry and physics
- VOL 17, NO 3-2033
- Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 DNR-PM1Cblack carbon (BC)) was 27.5 μgm􀀀 3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O = C), hydrogen to carbon (H = C), and nitrogen to carbon (N = C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM = OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6– 90.7 μgm􀀀 3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O=CD0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O= CD0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O=CD0.34), and secondary organic aerosol
(SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O=CD 0:56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O=C D 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA D HOACCOACBBOA) accounted for 59% the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15
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