Wintertime water-soluble aerosol composition and particle water content in Fresno, California
- Wintertime water-soluble aerosol composition and particle water content in Fresno, California
- 김화진; Caroline L. Parworth; Dominique E. Young; Xiaolu Zhang; Christopher D. Cappa; Sonya Collier; Qi Zhang
- Issue Date
- Journal of geophysical research : Atmospheres
- VOL 122, NO 5-3170
- The composition and concentrations of water-soluble gases and ionic aerosol components were measured from January to February 2013 in Fresno, CA, with a particle-into-liquid sampler with ion chromatography and annular denuders. The average (+/- 1 sigma) ionic aerosol mass concentration was 15.0 (+/- 9.4) mu g m(-3), and dominated by nitrate (61%), followed by ammonium, sulfate, chloride, potassium, nitrite, and sodium. Aerosol-phase organic acids, including formate and glycolate, and amines including methylaminium, triethanolaminium, ethanolaminium, dimethylaminium, and ethylaminium were also detected. Although the dominant species all came from secondary aerosol formation, there were primary sources of ionic aerosols as well, including biomass burning for potassium and glycolate, sea spray for sodium, chloride, and dimethylamine, and vehicles for formate. Particulate methanesulfonic acid was also detected and mainly associated with terrestrial sources. On average, the molar concentration of ammonia was 49 times greater than nitric acid, indicating that ammonium nitrate formation was limited by nitric acid availability. Particle water was calculated based on the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) thermodynamic prediction of inorganic particle water and kappa-Kohler theory approximation of organic particle water. The average (+/- 1 sigma) particle water concentration was 19.2 (+/- 18.6) mu g m(-3), of which 90% was attributed to inorganic species. The fractional contribution of particle water to total fine particle mass averaged at 36% during this study and was greatest during early morning and night and least during the day. Based on aqueous-phase concentrations of ions calculated by using E-AIM, the average (+/- 1 sigma) pH of particles in Fresno during the winter was estimated to be 4.2 (+/- 0.2).
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