Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers
- Passivation of black phosphorus saturable absorbers for reliable pulse formation of fiber lasers
- 송용원; 박기철; 나동수; 박기환
- black phosphorus; saturable absorber; ultrafast pulse laser; polydimethylsiloxane passivation; alumina passivation
- Issue Date
- VOL 28-475207-8
- Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted increasing attention due to its unique electrical properties.
In addition, the outstanding optical nonlinearity of BP has been demonstrated in various ways.
Its functionality as a saturable absorber, in particular, has been validated in demonstrations of
passive mode-locked lasers. However, normally, the performance of BP is degraded eventually
by both thermal and chemical damage in ambient conditions. The passivation of BP is the critical
issue to guarantee a stable performance of the optical devices. We quantitatively characterized the mode-locked lasers operated by BP saturable absorbers with diversified passivation materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Al2O3, considering the atomic structure of the
materials, and therefore the hydro-permeability of the passivation layers. Unlike the BP layers
without passivation, we demonstrated that the Al2O3-passivated BP layer was protected from the surface oxidation reaction in the long-term, and the PDMS-passivated one had a short-term blocking effect. The quantitative analysis showed that the time-dependent characteristics of the pulsed laser without passivation were changed with respect to the pulse duration, spectral width, and time-bandwidth product displaying 550 fs, 2.8 nm, and 0.406, respectively. With
passivation, the changes were limited to <43 fs, <0.3 nm, and <0.012, respectively.
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