Mechanochemically Synthesized SnS Nanocrystals: Impact of Nonstoichiometry on Phase Purity and Solar Cell Performance
- Mechanochemically Synthesized SnS Nanocrystals: Impact of Nonstoichiometry on Phase Purity and Solar Cell Performance
- 이승용; 이도권; 장윤희; 박보인
- Tin sulfide; Mechanochemical; Nanocrystals; Thin-film solar cells; Nonstoichiomentry
- Issue Date
- ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering
- VOL 6, NO 3-3009
- We demonstrate nontoxic, earth-abundant light-absorbing SnS thin films fabricated by a low-cost, environmentally friendly nonvacuum process. SnS nanocrystals (NCs) are mechanochemically synthesized from elemental powders without the use of any other additives or solvents. To investigate the effect of the Sn-to-S stoichiometric ratio on the crystalline phase of the SnS NCs, the nonstoichiometry is systematically controlled from 0.95 (Sn0.95S) to 1.05 (Sn1.05S) by adjusting the mixing ratio of the Sn and S powders. The crystallographic evolution with the milling time signifies that the formation of the SnS phase follows a mechanochemically driven self-propagation reaction mechanism. The as-synthesized SnS NCs with a stoichiometric composition (i.e., Sn1.00S) are found to contain a Sn2S3 impurity phase in a non-negligible amount, which can be subsequently eliminated by a post heat treatment at 500 °C in a reducing atmosphere. Interestingly, however, the formation of Sn2S3 during the mechanochemical synthesis process is greatly alleviated by introducing a Sn-excess composition (e.g., Sn1.05S). In addition, the solar cell with a Sn1.05S absorber exhibits a much higher efficiency as compared to the Sn0.95S- or Sn1.00S-based devices, which is likely attributed to the improved phase purity of Sn-excess SnS as well as to its better microstructure with higher crystallinity than the other compositions.
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