Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems
- Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems
- 임혜원; 이병환; 최선혜; 김현중; 박상덕; 김형춘; 황성희; 나승열
- Issue Date
- Journal of Ginseng Research
- VOL 42, NO 1-41
Recently, we identified a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, called gintonin. We showed that gintonin induces [Ca2+]i transient-mediated morphological changes, proliferation, and migration in cells expressing lysophosphatidic acid receptors and that oral administration of gintonin exhibits anti-Alzheimer disease effects in model mice. However, little is known about the intestinal absorption of gintonin. The aim of this study was to investigate gintonin absorption using two model systems.
Gintonin membrane permeation was examined using a parallel artificial membrane permeation assay, and gintonin absorption was evaluated in a mouse everted intestinal sac model.
The parallel artificial membrane permeation assay showed that gintonin could permeate an artificial membrane in a dose-dependent manner. In the everted sac model, gintonin absorption increased with incubation time (from 0 min to 60 min), followed by a decrease in absorption. Gintonin absorption into everted sacs was also dose dependent, with a nonlinear correlation between gintonin absorption and concentration at 0.1– 3 mg/mL and saturation at 3– 5 mg/mL. Gintonin absorption was inhibited by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the sodium– glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin. Moreover, lipid extraction with methanol also attenuated gintonin absorption, suggesting the importance of the lipid portion of gintonin in absorption. This result shows that gintonin might be absorbed through passive diffusion, paracellular, and active transport pathways.
The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.
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