Protocatechuic acid improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury by attenuating blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and hemorrhage in rats

Title
Protocatechuic acid improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury by attenuating blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and hemorrhage in rats
Authors
윤인찬박찬솔이지윤최해영주봉건윤태영
Keywords
Protocatechuic acid; Blood-spinal cord barrier; Spinal cord injury; Hemorrhage; Matrix metalloprotease
Issue Date
2019-03
Publisher
Neurochemistry international
Citation
VOL 124-192
Abstract
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and hemorrhage lead to blood cell infiltration and progressive secondary injuries including inflammation. Inflammatory response is one of the major events resulting in apoptosis, scar formation and neuronal dysfunction after SCI. Here, we investigated whether protocatechuic acid (PCA), a natural phenolic compound, would attenuate BSCB disruption and hemorrhage, leading to functional improvement after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at T9, PCA (50  mg/kg) was administrated via intraperitoneal injection immediately, 6  h, and 12  h after SCI, and the same dose of PCA once a day until 7  d after injury. Our data show that PCA inhibited apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes and improved functional recovery after injury. PCA also attenuated BSCB disruption and hemorrhage and reduced the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages compared to vehicle control. Moreover, PCA inhibited the expression and activation of matrix metalloprotease-9, which is well known to disrupt BSCB after SCI. Furthermore, PCA treatment significantly inhibited the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 and transient receptor potential melastatin 4, which are known to mediate hemorrhage at an early stage after SCI. Consistent with these findings, the mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and chemokines was significantly alleviated by PCA treatment. Thus, our results suggest that PCA improved functional recovery after SCI in part by inhibiting BSCB disruption and hemorrhage through the down-regulation of sulfonylurea receptor 1/transient receptor potential melastatin 4 and matrix metalloprotease-9.
URI
http://pubs.kist.re.kr/handle/201004/69077
ISSN
0197-0186
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KIST Publication > Article
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