Carbon Nitride Phosphorus as an Effective Lithium Polysulfide Adsorbent for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
- Carbon Nitride Phosphorus as an Effective Lithium Polysulfide Adsorbent for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
- 조원일; 이광렬; 김문석; Deepika; 도반중; 김민섭
- carbon nitride phosphorus; P-S bond; lithium-sulfur batteries; adsorbent; lithium polysulfides; shuttling phenomenon
- Issue Date
- ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
- VOL 11, NO 12-11441
- Lithium– sulfur (Li– S) batteries are attracting substantial attention because of their high-energy densities and potential applications in portable electronics. However, an intrinsic property of Li– S systems, that is, the solubility of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), hinders the commercialization of Li– S batteries. Herein, a new material, that is, carbon nitride phosphorus (CNP), is designed and synthesized as a superior LiPS adsorbent to overcome the issues of Li– S batteries. Both the experimental results and the density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that CNP possesses the highest binding energy with LiPS at a P concentration of ∼22% (CNP22). The DFT calculations explain the simultaneous existence of Li– N bonding and P– S coordination in the sulfur cathode when CNP22 interacts with LiPS. By introducing CNP22 into the Li– S systems, a sufficient charging capacity at a low cutoff voltage, that is, 2.45 V, is effectively implemented, to minimize the side reactions, and therefore, to prolong the cycling life of Li– S systems. After 700 cycles, a Li– S cell with CNP22 gives a high discharge capacity of 850 mA h g– 1 and a cycling stability with a decay rate of 0.041% cycle– 1. The incorporation of CNP22 can achieve high performance in Li– S batteries without concerns regarding the LiPS shuttling phenomenon.
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