3-Carene, a Phytoncide from Pine Tree Has a Sleep-enhancing Effect by Targeting the GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors
- 3-Carene, a Phytoncide from Pine Tree Has a Sleep-enhancing Effect by Targeting the GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors
- 배애님; 우준성; Hyejin Yang; Minseok Yoon; Changdev G. Gadhe; Suengmok Cho; C. Justin Lee
- Sleep-enhancing; 3-carene; GABA receptor
- Issue Date
- Experimental Neurobiology
- VOL 28, NO 5-601
- 3-Carene, a bicyclic monoterpene, is one of the major components of the pine tree essential oils. It has been reported that, in addition to its known properties as a phytoncide, 3-carene has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anxiolytic effects. We have previously demonstrated that α-pinene, the major component of pine tree, has a hypnotic effect through GABAA-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors. However, a hypnotic effect of 3-carene has not been studied yet. Here, we report that oral administration of 3-carene increases the sleep duration and reduces sleep latency in pentobarbital-induced sleep test. 3-Carene potentiates the GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic responses by prolonging the decay time constant of inhibitory synaptic responses. These enhancing effects of 3-carene are reproduced by zolpidem, a modulator for GABAA-BZD receptor, and fully inhibited by flumazenil, an antagonist for GABAA-BZD receptor. The molecular docking of 3-carene to the BZD site of GABAA protein structure, suggests that 3-carene binds to the BZD site of α1 and ϒ 2 subunits of GABAA-BZD receptor. These results indicate that, similar to α-pinene, 3-carene shows a sleep-enhancing effect by acting as a positive modulator for GABAA-BZD receptor.
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