One-pot direct conversion of levulinic acid into high-yield valeric acid over a highly stable bimetallic Nb-Cu/Zr-doped porous silica catalyst
- One-pot direct conversion of levulinic acid into high-yield valeric acid over a highly stable bimetallic Nb-Cu/Zr-doped porous silica catalyst
- 김승민; Neha Karanwal; Deepak Verma; Paresh Butolia; 김재훈
- Issue Date
- Green chemistry : an international journal and green chemistry resource : GC
- VOL 22, NO 3-787
- The direct conversion of levulinic acid (LA) to valeric biofuel is highly promising for the development of biorefineries. Herein, LA is converted into valeric acid (VA) via one-pot direct cascade conversion over non-noble metal-based Nb-doped Cu on Zr-doped porous silica (Nb-Cu/ZPS). Under mild reaction conditions (150 degrees C and 3.0 MPa H-2 for 4 h), LA was completely converted into VA in high yield (99.8%) in aqueous medium with a high turnover frequency of 0.038 h(-1). The Lewis acid sites of ZPS enhanced the adsorption of LA on the catalyst surface, and both the Lewis and BrOnsted acidity associated with Nb2O5 and the metallic Cu-0 sites promoted catalysis of the cascade hydrogenation, ring cyclization, ring-opening, and hydrogenation reactions to produce VA from LA. The bimetallic Nb-Cu/ZPS catalyst was also effective for the conversion of VA into various valeric esters in C1-C5 alcohol media. The presence of Nb2O5 effectively suppressed metal leaching and coke formation, which are serious issues in the liquid-phase conversion of highly acidic LA during the reaction. The catalyst could be used for up to five consecutive cycles with marginal loss of activity, even without catalyst re-activation.
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