Sodium Storage Behavior in Natural Graphite using Ether­based Electrolyte Systems

Sodium Storage Behavior in Natural Graphite using Ether­based Electrolyte Systems
Issue Date
Advanced functional materials
VOL 25, NO 4-541
This work reports that natural graphite is capable of Na insertion and extraction with a remarkable reversibility using ether-based electrolytes. Natural graphite (the most well-known anode material for Li-ion batteries) has been barely studied as a suitable anode for Na rechargeable batteries due to the lack of Na intercalation capability. Herein, graphite is not only capable of Na intercalation but also exhibits outstanding performance as an anode for Na ion batteries. The graphite anode delivers a reversible capacity of approximate to 150 mAh g(-1) with a cycle stability for 2500 cycles, and more than 75 mAh g(-1) at 10 A g(-1) despite its micrometer-size (approximate to 100 m). An Na storage mechanism in graphite, where Na+-solvent co-intercalation occurs combined with partial pseudocapacitive behaviors, is revealed in detail. It is demonstrated that the electrolyte solvent species significantly affect the electrochemical properties, not only rate capability but also redox potential. The feasibility of graphite in a Na full cell is also confirmed in conjunction with the Na1.5VPO4.8F0.7 cathode, delivering an energy of approximate to 120 Wh kg(-1) while maintaining approximate to 70% of the initial capacity after 250 cycles. This exceptional behavior of natural graphite promises new avenues for the development of cost-effective and reliable Na ion batteries.
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