Nano-emulsification of oriental lacquer sap by ultrasonic wave propagation: Improvement of thin-film characteristics as a natural resin
- Nano-emulsification of oriental lacquer sap by ultrasonic wave propagation: Improvement of thin-film characteristics as a natural resin
- 이상수; 임정아; 김수진; 오효준; 황준호; 박민주; 임호선; 이은지; Jihoo Lee
- nanoemulsification; ultrasonification; oriental lacquer sap; drying time
- Issue Date
- Ultrasonics sonochemistry
- VOL 73, 105545
- Lacquer sap has received much attention as a traditional natural resin because it is a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer resource unlike artificial coating materials. However, strict drying conditions and long drying times of lacquer sap should be modified to expand its applications. This study presents the first attempt to investigate the effect of different amplitudes of ultrasonic waves on the lacquer sap composed of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets and the mechanical properties of the resultant film by solvent evaporation. Acoustically induced cavitation via batch ultrasonication facilitates the generation of submicron-sized W/O emulsion. The drying time of sonicated lacquer sap was noticeably shortened as the amplitude of acoustic power increased. Interestingly, the transparency of the film cast from lacquer sap consisting of the smallest emulsion droplets increased significantly, weakening the degree of colour change from caramel-like yellow to dark brown as polymerisation progressed. These are attributed to the effective and frequent contact of laccase enzyme with urushiol at the increased interfacial area of nano-emulsified W/O droplets pulverised by ultrasonic waves. The quinone radical-generation in the interface layer and its transfer to the urushiol oil phase through water-insoluble glycoprotein emulsifier are greatly promoted, resulting in highly cross-linked, dense three-dimensional polymer networks, which also increased the lacquer film hardness after drying. As the emulsion droplet size decreased, the mutual interaction between the catechol moiety of urushiol and the substrates increased, resulting in improved adhesion. The nano-emulsification of the lacquer sap by ultrasonic waves can be used in a simple, effective, and eco-friendly way to shorten the drying time and improve the film characteristics of natural resins. This approach could pave the way for its wide range of applications in indu
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