Development and optimization of halogenated vinyl sulfones as Nrf2 activators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

Title
Development and optimization of halogenated vinyl sulfones as Nrf2 activators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
Authors
박기덕박종현김시원김현지김현정엘리자 리최지원김병은유종석이용섭
Issue Date
2021-02
Publisher
European journal of medicinal chemistry
Citation
VOL 212, 113103
Abstract
The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the cellular defense system against oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We previously developed Nrf2 activators that potentially protect the death of dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal cells against oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we designed and synthesized a class of halogenated vinyl sulfones by inserting halogens and pyridine to maximize Nrf2 activation efficacy. Among the synthesized compounds, (E)-3-chloro-2-(2-((2-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl)vinyl)pyridine (9d) significantly exhibited potent Nrf2 activating efficacy (9d: EC50 = 26 nM) at least 10-fold compared with the previous developed compounds (1 and 2). Furthermore, treating with 9d remarkably increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 protein levels in microglial BV-2 cells. 9d was shown to induce the expression of antioxidant response genes HO-1, GCLC, GCLM, and SOD-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels and suppress proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. Also, 9d remarkably protected DAergic neurons and restored the PD-associated motor dysfunction in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model.
URI
http://pubs.kist.re.kr/handle/201004/73388
ISSN
0223-5234
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