Ultrasound-guided immunofunctional photoacoustic imaging for diagnosis of lymph node metastases
- Ultrasound-guided immunofunctional photoacoustic imaging for diagnosis of lymph node metastases
- 선인철; Diego S. Dumani; Stanislav Y. Emelianov
- Issue Date
- VOL 11, NO 24-11659
- Metastases, rather than primary tumors, determine mortality in the majority of cancer patients. A noninvasive immunofunctional imaging method was developed to detect sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases using ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (USPA) imaging combined with glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (GC-AuNPs) as an imaging contrast agent. GC-AuNPs, injected peritumorally into breast tumor-bearing mice, were taken up by immune cells, and subsequently transported to the SLN. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional USPA imaging was used to isolate the signal from GC-AuNPtagged cells. Volumetric analysis was used to quantify GC-AuNP accumulation in the SLN after cellular uptake and transport by immune cells. The results show that the spatio-temporal distribution of GC-AuNPs in the SLN was affected by the presence of metastases. The parameter describing the spatial distribution of GC-AuNP-tagged cells within the SLN was more than 2-fold lower in metastatic lymph nodes compared with non-metastatic controls. Histological analysis confirmed that the distribution of GC-AuNP-tagged immune cells is changed by the presence of metastatic cells. The USPA immunofunctional imaging successfully distinguished metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes using biocompatible nanoparticles. This method could aid physicians in the detection of micrometastases, thus guiding SLN biopsy and avoiding unnecessary biopsy procedures.
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