The interaction of shockwaves with a vapour bubble in boiling histotripsy: The shock scattering effect

The interaction of shockwaves with a vapour bubble in boiling histotripsy: The shock scattering effect
박기주이선호Pierre GelatMatheus Oliveira de AndradeNader Saffari
High intensity focused ultrasound; Acoustic cavitation; Boiling histotripsy; A boiling bubble; Cavitation clouds; Shock scattering
Issue Date
Ultrasonics sonochemistry
VOL 70, 105312
Boiling histotripsy is a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technique which uses a number of short pulses with high acoustic pressures at the HIFU focus to induce mechanical tissue fractionation. In boiling histotripsy, two different types of acoustic cavitation contribute towards mechanical tissue destruction: a boiling vapour bubble and cavitation clouds. An understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these phenomena and their dynamics is therefore paramount to predicting and controlling the overall size of a lesion produced for a given boiling histotripsy exposure condition. A number of studies have shown the effects of shockwave heating in generating a boiling bubble at the HIFU focus and have studied its dynamics under boiling histotripsy insonation. However, not much is known about the subsequent production of cavitation clouds that form between the HIFU transducer and the boiling bubble. The main objective of the present study is to examine what causes this bubble cluster formation after the generation of a boiling vapour bubble. A numerical simulation of 2D nonlinear wave propagation with the presence of a bubble at the focus of a HIFU field was performed using the k-Wave MATLAB toolbox for time domain ultrasound simulations, which numerically solves the generalised Westervelt equation. The numerical results clearly demonstrate the appearance of the constructive interference of a backscattered shockwave by a bubble with incoming incident shockwaves. This interaction (i.e., the reflected and inverted peak positive phase from the bubble with the incoming incident rarefactional phase) can eventually induce a greater peak negative pressure field compared to that without the bubble at the HIFU focus. In addition, the backscattered peak negative pressure magnitude gradually increased from 17.4 MPa to 31.6 MPa when increasing the bubble size from 0.2 mm to 1.5 mm. The latter value is above the intrinsic cavit
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