Ginseng gintonin, aging societies, and geriatric brain diseases.

Ginseng gintonin, aging societies, and geriatric brain diseases.
Issue Date
Integrative Medicine Research
VOL 10, NO 1, 100450
Background A dramatic increase in aging populations and low birth rates rapidly drive aging societies and increase aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, functional food or medicinal formulations to prevent geriatric brain disorders are not readily available. Panax ginseng is a candidate, since ginseng has long-been consumed as a rejuvenating agent. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the components of ginseng that are responsible for brain rejuvenation and human longevity are unknown. Accumulating evidence shows that gintonin is a candidate for the anti-aging ingredient of ginseng, especially in brain senescence. Methods Gintonin, a glycolipoprotein complex, contains three lipid-derived G protein-coupled receptor ligands: lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs), lysophosphatidylinositols (LPIs), and linoleic acid (LA). LPA, LPI, and LA act on six LPA receptor subtypes, GPR55, and GPR40, respectively. These G protein-coupled receptors are distributed within the nervous and non-nervous systems of the human body. Results Gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) exhibits anti-brain senescence and effects against disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Oral administration of gintonin in animal models of d-galactose-induced brain aging, AD, HD, and PD restored cognitive and motor functions. The underlying molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated anti-brain aging and anti-neurodegenerative diseases include neurogenesis, autophagy stimulation, anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review describes the characteristics of gintonin and GEF, and how gintonin exerts its effects on brain aging and brain associated-neurodegenerative diseases. Conclusion Finally, we describe how GEF can be applied to improve the quality of life of senior citizens in aging societies.
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