Gamma subunit of complement component 8 is a neuroinflammation inhibitor

Gamma subunit of complement component 8 is a neuroinflammation inhibitor
황은미류훈김승찬심현수Jong-Heon KimRuqayya AfridiJin HanHyun-Gug JungYoungshik ChoeHyang-Sook HoeKyoungho Suk
Issue Date
Brain : a journal of neurology
VOL 144, NO 2-552
The complement system is part of the innate immune system that comprises several small proteins activated by sequential cleavages. The majority of these complement components, such as components 3a (C3a) and C5a, are chemotactic and pro-inflammatory. However, in this study, we revealed an inhibitory role of complement component 8 gamma (C8G) in neuroinflammation. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, who exhibit strong neuroinflammation, we found higher C8G levels in brain tissue, CSF, and plasma. Our novel findings also showed that the expression level of C8G increases in the inflamed mouse brain, and that C8G is mainly localized to brain astrocytes. Experiments using recombinant C8G protein and shRNA-mediated knockdown showed that C8G inhibits glial hyperactivation, neuroinflammation, and cognitive decline in acute and chronic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, we identified sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) as a novel interaction protein of C8G and demonstrated that astrocyte-derived C8G interacts with S1PR2 to antagonize the pro-inflammatory action of S1P in microglia. Taken together, our results reveal the previously unrecognized role of C8G as a neuroinflammation inhibitor. Our findings pave the way towards therapeutic containment of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease and related neurological diseases.
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