Ginseng gintonin alleviates neurological symptoms in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor
- Ginseng gintonin alleviates neurological symptoms in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor
- 임혜원; 남성민; 최종희; 최선혜; 조희정; 조연진; 김형춘; 조익현; 김도근; 나승열
- Issue Date
- Journal of Ginseng Research
- VOL 45, NO 3-400
We recently showed that gintonin, an active ginseng ingredient, exhibits antibrain neurodegenerative disease effects including multiple target mechanisms such as antioxidative stress and antiinflammation via the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a spinal disease characterized by neurodegenerative changes in motor neurons with subsequent skeletal muscle paralysis and death. However, pathophysiological mechanisms of ALS are still elusive, and therapeutic drugs have not yet been developed. We investigate the putative alleviating effects of gintonin in ALS.
The G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse ALS model was used. Gintonin (50 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administration started from week seven. We performed histological analyses, immunoblot assays, and behavioral tests.
Gintonin extended mouse survival and relieved motor dysfunctions. Histological analyses of spinal cords revealed that gintonin increased the survival of motor neurons, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors, choline acetyltransferase, NeuN, and Nissl bodies compared with the vehicle control. Gintonin attenuated elevated spinal NAD(P) quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression and decreased oxidative stress-related ferritin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1-immunoreactive microglia, S100β-immunoreactive astrocyte, and Olig2-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes compared with the control vehicle. Interestingly, we found that the spinal LPA1 receptor level was decreased, whereas gintonin treatment restored decreased LPA1 receptor expression levels in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse, thereby attenuating neurological symptoms and histological deficits.
Gintonin-mediated symptomatic improvements of ALS might be associated with the attenuations of neuronal loss and oxidative stress via the spinal LPA1 receptor regulations. The present results suggest that the spinal LPA1 receptor is eng
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