Impact of Sodium Silicate Supplemented, IR-Treated Panax Ginseng on Extraction Optimization for Enhanced Anti-Tyrosinase and Antioxidant Activity: A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Approach

Kabadayi, Seda NurBin Sadiq, NooruddinHamayun, MuhammadPark, Nam-IlKim, Ho-Youn
Issue Date
Antioxidants, v.13, no.1
Ginseng has long been widely used for its therapeutic potential. In our current study, we investigated the impact of abiotic stress induced by infrared (IR) radiations and sodium silicate on the upregulation of antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase levels, as well as the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) variety Yeonpoong. The RSM-based design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction time (1-3 h) and temperature (40-60 degrees C) for better anti-tyrosinase activity and improved antioxidant potential. The optimal extraction results were obtained with a one-hour extraction time, at a temperature of 40 degrees C, and with a 1.0 mM sodium silicate treatment. We recorded maximum anti-tyrosinase (53.69%) and antioxidant (40.39%) activities when RSM conditions were kept at 875.2 mg GAE/100 g TPC, and 3219.58 mg catechin/100 g. When 1.0 mM sodium silicate was added to the media and extracted at 40 degrees C for 1 h, the highest total ginsenoside content (368.09 mg/g) was recorded, with variations in individual ginsenosides. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, and F2 were significantly affected by extraction temperature, while Rb2 and Rc were influenced by the sodium silicate concentration. Moreover, ginsenoside F2 increased with the sodium silicate treatment, while the Rg3-S content decreased. Interestingly, higher temperatures favored greater ginsenoside diversity while sodium silicate impacted PPD-type ginsenosides. It was observed that the actual experimental values closely matched the predicted values, and this agreement was statistically significant at a 95% confidence level. Our findings suggest that the application of IR irradiation in hydroponic systems can help to improve the quality of ginseng sprouts when supplemented with sodium silicate in hydroponic media. Optimized extraction conditions using ultrasonication can be helpful in improving antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity.
ARTIFICIAL-LIGHT; NUTRIENTS; PLANT; anti-tyrosinase; antioxidant; response surface methodology; Panax ginseng; hydroponic; sodium silicate; infrared light
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