Electroencephalography-based classification of Alzheimer’s disease spectrum during computer-based cognitive testing

Seul-Kee KimHayom KimSang Hee KimJumg Bin KimKim, Lae hyun
Issue Date
Nature Publishing Group
Scientific Reports, v.14, no.1
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disease leading to cognitive decline, and to prevent it, researchers seek to diagnose mild cognitive impairment (MCI) early. Particularly, non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) is often mistaken for normal aging as the representative symptom of AD, memory decline, is absent. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), an intermediate step between normal aging and MCI, is crucial for prediction or early detection of MCI, which determines the presence of AD spectrum pathology. We developed a computer-based cognitive task to classify the presence or absence of AD pathology and stage within the AD spectrum, and attempted to perform multi-stage classification through electroencephalography (EEG) during resting and memory encoding state. The resting and memory-encoding states of 58 patients (20 with SCD, 10 with naMCI, 18 with aMCI, and 10 with AD) were measured and classified into four groups. We extracted features that could reflect the phase, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the resting and memory-encoding states. For the classification, we compared nine machine learning models and three deep learning models using Leave-one-subject-out strategy. Significant correlations were found between the existing neurophysiological test scores and performance of our computer-based cognitive task for all cognitive domains. In all models used, the memory-encoding states realized a higher classification performance than resting states. The best model for the 4-class classification was cKNN. The highest accuracy using resting state data was 67.24%, while it was 93.10% using memory encoding state data. This study involving participants with SCD, naMCI, aMCI, and AD focused on early Alzheimer’s diagnosis. The research used EEG data during resting and memory encoding states to classify these groups, demonstrating the significance of cognitive process-related brain waves for diagnosis. The computer-based cognitive task introduced in the study offers a time-efficient alternative to traditional neuropsychological tests, showing a strong correlation with their results and serving as a valuable tool to assess cognitive impairment with reduced bias.
MEMORY CONSOLIDATION; SEMANTIC MEMORY; EEG; IMPAIRMENT; DEMENTIA; ABNORMALITIES; AMNESIA; MEDIAL TEMPORAL-LOBE; Mild cognitive impairment; Subjective cognitive decline; Non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment; Amnestic mild cognitive impairment; Memory-encoding states; Electroencephalography; Alzheimer' s disease spectrum; Computer-based cognitive task; Alzheimer' s disease
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