Osteogenic Effects of the Diospyros lotus L. Leaf Extract on MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts and Ovariectomized Mice via BMP2/4 and TGF β Pathways

Hong, SoyeonLazerka, NadzeyaJeon, Byeong JunKim, Jeong DoErdenebileg, SaruulNho, Chu WonYoo, Gyhye
Issue Date
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Nutrients, v.16, no.8
Osteoporosis, a disease defined by the primary bone strength due to a low bone mineral density, is a bone disorder associated with increased mortality in the older adult population. Osteoporosis is mainly treated via hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphates, and anti-bone resorption agents. However, these agents exert severe side effects, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic agents. Many studies are focusing on osteogenic agents as they increase the bone density, which is essential for osteoporosis treatment. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Diospyros lotus L. leaf extract (DLE) and its components on osteoporosis in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and ovariectomized mice and to elucidate the underlying related pathways. DLE enhanced the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, with a 1.5-fold elevation in ALP activity, and increased the levels of osteogenic molecules, RUNX family transcription factor 2, and osterix. This alteration resulted from the activation of bone morphogenic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4) and transformation of growth factor beta (TGF beta) pathways. In ovariectomized mice, DLE suppressed the decrease in bone mineral density by 50% and improved the expression of other bone markers, which was confirmed by the 3 similar to 40-fold increase in osteogenic proteins and mRNA expression levels in bone marrow cells. The three major compounds identified in DLE exhibited osteogenic and estrogenic activities with their aglycones, as previously reported. Among the major compounds, myricitrin alone was not as strong as whole DLE with all its constituents. The osteogenic activity of DLE was partially suppressed by the inhibitor of estrogen signaling, indicating that the estrogenic activity of DLE participated in its osteogenic activity. Overall, DLE suppresses osteoporosis by inducing osteoblast differentiation.
MYRICETIN; OSTEOPOROSIS; PREVENTION; osteoporosis; Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE); osteoblast differentiation; bone morphogenic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4); transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)
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