Real-Time Acoustic Simulation Framework for tFUS: A Feasibility Study Using Navigation System

Park, Tae YoungKoh, HeekyungLee, WonhyePark, So HeeChang, Won SeokKim, Hyungmin
Issue Date
Academic Press
NeuroImage, v.282
Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS), in which acoustic energy is focused on a small region in the brain through the skull, is a non-invasive therapeutic method with high spatial resolution and depth penetration. Image-guided navigation has been widely utilized to visualize the location of acoustic focus in the cranial cavity. However, this system is often inaccurate because of the significant aberrations caused by the skull. Therefore, acoustic simulations using a numerical solver have been widely adopted to compensate for this inaccuracy. Although the simulation can predict the intracranial acoustic pressure field, real-time application during tFUS treatment is almost impossible due to the high computational cost. In this study, we propose a neural network-based real-time acoustic simulation framework and test its feasibility by implementing a simulation-guided navigation (SGN) system. Real-time acoustic simulation is performed using a 3D conditional generative adversarial network (3D-cGAN) model featuring residual blocks and multiple loss functions. This network was trained by the conventional numerical acoustic simulation program (i.e., k-Wave). The SGN system is then implemented by integrating real-time acoustic simulation with a conventional image-guided navigation system. The proposed system can provide simulation results with a frame rate of 5 Hz (i.e., about 0.2 s), including all processing times. In numerical validation (3D-cGAN vs. k-Wave), the average peak intracranial pressure error was 6.8 ± 5.5%, and the average acoustic focus position error was 5.3 ± 7.7 mm. In experimental validation using a skull phantom (3D-cGAN vs. actual measurement), the average peak intracranial pressure error was 4.5%, and the average acoustic focus position error was 6.6 mm. These results demonstrate that the SGN system can predict the intracranial acoustic field according to transducer placement in real-time.
INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND; CAVITATION; NEUROMODULATION; DELIVERY; PLATFORM; ENERGY; Transcranial-focused ultrasound; Acoustic simulation; Real-time simulation; Generative adversarial network; Neuronavigation
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