Evidence of the formation of the shock scattering induced violent cavitation cluster during boiling histotripsy insonation: A numerical case study

Pahk, K.J.
Issue Date
Anglo-French Physical Acoustics
2020 Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference, AFPAC 2020, pp.012006
Boiling histotripsy is a promising noninvasive ultrasonic technique that can be used to mechanically destroy solid tumours. In boiling histotripsy, the formations and dynamics of a boiling vapour bubble and cavitation clouds contribute towards mechanical tissue fractionation. Whilst a number of numerical and experimental studies have been performed to examine and understand the evolution of a boiling bubble at the HIFU focus in a viscoelastic medium, little is known about the subsequent generation of cavitation clouds that form in between the boiling bubble and the HIFU transducer during boiling histotripsy insonation. Previous experimental observations suggest that the shock scattering by a boiling bubble may play a significant role in producing cavitation clouds. The main objective of the present study is, therefore, to investigate the relationship between the shock scattering phenomenon and the occurrence of cavitation clouds through (a) performing a numerical simulation of nonlinear wave propagation with the presence of a bubble at the HIFU focus and (b) comparing with the previous high speed camera observations of a cavitation cluster formation. The size of a bubble (i.e., 95.7, 128.1 and 258 ?m in diameter) as well as the HIFU exposure conditions (i.e., a driving frequency of 1.1 MHz, peak positive and negative pressures of 68.4 MPa and-13.9 MPa) used in the simulations were obtained from the previous boiling histotripsy experiments conducted with a tissue gel phantom. The numerical results presented in this study clearly demonstrate that the shock scattering is the main cause of the creation of a cavitation cluster in boiling histotripsy. ? Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
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